Observational studies

2018 – Lopes-Pereira et al.
Lopes-Pereira et al. Computerized analysis of cardiotocograms and ST signals is associated with significant reductions in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and cesarean delivery: an observational study in 38,466 deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Mar;220(3):269.e1-269.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.12.037. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

2018 – Timonen and Holmberg
Timonen S, Holmberg K, The importance of the learning process in ST analysis interpretation and its impact in improving clinical and neonatal outcomes, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.03.017.

2015 – Sletten and Kessler
Sletten and Kessler. QRS abnormalities of the fetal electrocardiogram, and their implications for ST-interval analysis during labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015 Oct;94(10):1128-35. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12709.

2015 – Becker et al.
Becker et al. The added predictive value of biphasic events in ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram for intrapartum fetal monitoring. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015 Feb;94(2):175-82. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12548.

2014 – Kessler et al.
Kessler et al. Intrapartum monitoring with cardiotocography and ST wave form analysis in breech position: an observational study. BJOG 2014. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12989

2013 – Kessler et al.
Kessler et al. Delay in intervention increases neonatal morbidity in births monitored with cardiotocography and ST-waveform analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013 Nov 19. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12304. Epub ahead of print.

2013 – Kessler et al.
Kessler et al. Intrapartum monitoring of high‐risk deliveries with ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram: an observational study of 6010 deliveries. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand.2013;92:75–84

2012 – Berakdar et al.
Berakdar et al. What about ST waveform analysis signal quality in the second stage of labor? A case‐control study. J Perinat Med Pages 1–4, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: 10.1515/jpm- 2012-0083, July 2012

2012 – Nurani et al.
Nurani et al. Misidentification of maternal heart rate as fetal on cardiotocography (CTG) during the second stage of labor: the role of the fetal ECG. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Aug 11. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01511.x. Epub ahead of print.

2012 – Massoud et al.
Massoud et al. How deviations from Stan guidelines contribute to operative delivery for suspected fetal distress. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 May; 162(1):45-9.

2012 – Becker et al.
Becker et al. Is intrapartum fever associated with ST-waveform changes of the fetal electrocardiogram? A retrospective cohort study.

2012 – Becker et al.
Becker et al. Predictive value of the baseline T-QRS ratio of the fetal electrocardiogram in intrapartum fetal monitoring: a prospective cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand.

2011 – Doret et al.
Doret et al. Use of peripartum ST analysis of fetal electorcariodgram without blood sampling: a large prospective cohort study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;156:35-40.

2011 – Valverde et al.
Valverde et al. Effectiveness of pulse oximetry versus fetal electrocardiography for the intrapartum evaluation of nonreassuring fetal heart rate. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159:333-7.

2011 – Becker et al.
Becker et al. Intrapartum epidural analgesia and ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011; 90:1364–70.

2010 – Parisaei et al.
Parisaei et al. Acceptability of the fetal electrocardiographic (STAN) monitoring system by staff at a high risk maternity unit. J Perinat Med. 2010 Mar;38(2):187-90.

2010 – Norén and Carlsson
Norén and Carlsson Reduced prevalence of metabolic acidosis at birth: an analysis of established STAN usage in the total population of deliveries in a Swedish district hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;202:546.e1-7.

2010 – Ragupathy et al.
Ragupathy et al. The use of STAN monitoring in the labour ward. Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;30(5): 465-9.

2010 – Rzepka et al.
Rzepka et al. Clinical Outcomes of High-risk Labours Monitored Using Fetal Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2010;39:27-32.

2009 – Westerhuis et al.
Westerhuis et al. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of intrapartum ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram in women monitored with STAN. BJOG. 2009;116:545–51.

2009 – Costa et al.
Costa et al. Prediction of neonatal acidemia by computer analysis of fetal heart rate and ST event signals. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:464.e1-6.

2009- Vayssièr et al.
Vayssièr et al. Inter-observer agreement in clinical decision-making for abnormal cardiotocogram (CTG) during labour: a comparison between CTG and CTG plus STAN. BJOG.

2008 – Kale et al.
Kale et al. Effect of availability of fetal ECG monitoring on operative deliveries. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87: 1189-93.

2008 – Melin et al.
Melin et al. Changes in the ST-interval segment of the fetal electrocardiogram in relation to acid-base status at birth. BJOG. 2008;115:1669–75.

2008 – Ojala et al.
Ojala et al. Interobserver agreement in the assessment of intrapartum automated fetal electrocardiography in singleton pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(5):536-40.

2008 – Rault et al.
Rault et al. Assessment of STAN S21 fetal heart monitor by medical staff. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;102(1):8-11.

2008 – Stuart et al.
Stuart et al. Fetal electrocardiographic monitoring during labor in relation to cord blood levels of the brain-injury marker protein S-100. J Perinat Med. 2008;36:136–41.

2008 – Yli et al.
Yli et al. Intrapartum fetal ECG and diabetes. J Matern Fetal Neonat Med.2008;21(4): 231–38.

2007 – Massoud et al.
Massoud et al. Fetal electrocardiotocography in labor and neonatal outcome: An observational study in 1889 patients in the French center of Edouard Herriot, Lyon. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;20(11),819-24.

2007 – Norén et al.
Norén et al. Fetal scalp and ST analysis as an adjunct to cardiotocography to predict fetal acidosis in labor J Perinat Med. 2007;35(5):408-14.

2007 – Vayssiere et al.
Vayssiere et al. Fetal electrocardiogram ST-segment analysis and prediction of neonatal acidosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.2007 May;97(2):110-4. Epub 2007 Mar 26.

2007 – Welin et al.
Welin et al. STAN, a clincal audit: the outcome of 2 years of regular use in the city of Varberg, Sweden Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(7):827-32.

2007 – Siira et al.
Siira et al. Change in the heart rate variability in relation to a significant ST-event associated with newborn metabolic acidois. BJOG. 2007;114(7):819-23.

2007 – Doria et al.
Doria et al. Review of the first 1502 cases of ECGST waveform analysis during labour in a teaching hospital. BJOG. 2007;114(10):1202-7.

2006 – Devoe et al.
Devoe et al. United States multicenter clinical usage study of the STAN 21 electronic fetal monitoring system. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195: 729–34.

2006 – Norén et al.
Norén et al. STAN in clinical practice – The outcome of 2 years of regular use in the city of Gothenburg. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195:7-15. Editor’s choice.

2005 – Amer-Wahlin et al.
Amer-Wahlin et al. Fetal heart rate patterns and ECG ST segment changes preceding metabolic acidaemia at birth. BJOG. 2005 Feb;112(2):160-5

2004 – Hajek et al.
Hajek et al. Analysis of current methods of diagnosing intrapartum fetal hypoxia. Archives Perinat Med. 2004;10(4), 7-10.

2004 – Kwee et al.
Kwee et al. STAN S21 fetal heart monitor for fetal surveillance during labor: an observational study in 637 patients. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;15(6):400–7

2004 – Luttkus et al.
Luttkus et al. Fetal scalp pH and ST analysis of the fetal ECG as an adjunct to CTG. A multi-centre, observational study. J Perinat Med. 2004;32(6):486-94.

2004 – Ross et al.
Ross et al. ST-segment analysis of the fetal ECG improves fetal heart rate tracing interpretation and clinical decision making. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;15(3):181-5.

2002 – Amer-Wahlin et al.
Amer-Wahlin et al. ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram during labour: Nordic observational multicentre study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12:260-6.


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